In 1870, together with the grapevines brought from America, the phylloxera (a tiny insect), the most dangerous pest of vineyards was brought to the Europe. At first it has got to France and has ruined the viticulture of this country, famous for its winemaking. Further it has extended on the east as well. During 30 years the phylloxera has ruined about 6 million hectares of vineyards. After dissemination of phylloxera, the phylloxera-resisting grapevines from America have been delivered to Europe. It would seem that the simplest way to resolve the problem was to replace the European grapes by the American ones. However, all parameters – productivity, sugariness, gustatory quality of berries – of the American vine have appeared much lower than with the long term cultivated breeds of the European vine. During 20 years the way out from the existing situation has been searched. As a result, it appeared that the best way to restore vineyards was to inoculate the European cultural vine on the American stock using the method of the English copulation. This method has appeared to be the most practical one. It has provided fast restoration of vine growing. But it had a major shortcoming – stratification, that is preliminary cultivation of the grafted cuttings of a grapevine in hothouses, and a low yield of quality grape samplings.

During the century, many technologies for manufacture of grafted grape saplings have been created that allowed increasing their quality and the yield in nursery-garden up to 75%. However: 1) copulation as the method of inoculation and 2) stratification – have remained constant.

As it is known, the process of cultivation of grape saplings with the preliminary stratification, from its part, demands area with autonomous heating system. The traditional method for cultivation of the grafted grape saplings consists in the following: the planting stock (a stock and a scion) are dipped in hot paraffin wax, which contains nutrients and protects the grafted material from drying-out, then are put in stratification boxes and sprinkled with wet sawdust. The boxes are brought to a hothouse and left for 2 - 3 weeks where the constant temperature 25 – 35°C and humidity 75%-90% are maintained, which promote merging of a stock and a scion (formation of a callus).

During above mentioned time, under the influence of high temperature and humidity, in addition to merging of grafted cuttings of the stock and the scion the grape saplings have sprouts up to 10 cm and roots up to 15 cm long. Afterwards, when grape saplings are taken out from the hothouse the germinated sprouts and roots are broken off to the basis. Again they are dipped in hot paraffin wax and planted in the nursery.

In a hothouse the grape saplings waste 30% of plastic substances for development of sprouts and roots and their development due to the remained stock of plastic substances again begins in the ground. In the case if the grape saplings are transplanted into the ground without removing the sprouts burst in the hothouse, they stop their growth and all perish when being replanted in the ground. Instead of them a reserve (lateral) bud begins its development.

From the aforesaid it is clear that production of grape saplings is a complex and expensive matter. If the grafted cuttings of a stock and a scion are planted immediately in the ground without preliminary stratification the yield of grape saplings will be low and will make 35 - 40 %.

Consequently, to establish a new vineyard the grape saplings are obtained with those companies which are engaged in their production. It is notable that some producers of grape saplings make them from the non-certified planting material that unfavorably influences on their quality.

The advantage of the new technology is in that it enables cultivating grape saplings on the ground area, where the new vineyard is planned to be established. The choice of the grafted material and its purchase occurs at participation and the consent of the owner of the ground area that is the guarantee of their quality. At the same time, grape saplings are initially adapted to the ground on which the new vineyard is planned to be established.

Process of cultivation of the grafted grapes seedlings in natural conditions, without preliminary stratification, takes place normally and consistently. The formation of callus in this case occurs not at once, but gradually. All the cambial cells participate in its formation. Its subsequent differentiation occurs consistently, therefore a point of adhesion is more dense and reliable. The formed roots on a stock continue the development freely. The main bud of the scion starts to grow not at once, but according to other developments of the grafted sapling. As a result of all this the processes of merging of a stock and a scion, having got initially in natural conditions are more perfect and their subsequent development passes normally. And the vine formed from the main bud has better growth and bearing and is more stable to diseases.

Utilization of the new technology enables receiving 180000 grape saplings on one hectare. Transplantation of the grafted grape material can be effected from March, 25th till May, 10th. In the autumn the grape saplings are ready to be planted at the vineyard.

For implementation of new technology I cooperate with the known experts of Georgia - employees of the Institute of Gardening, Wine-Growing and Winemaking, doctor of agricultural sciences, academician, Nodar Chkhartishvili and the doctor of agricultural sciences, manager of the department for production of grape and fruit saplings, Levan Ujmajuridze

Implementation of new technology is a vital question for today since it can bring the contribution to the decision of a problem of global warming


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